首页小说界诗苑散文天地纪实录文史哲艺术之声综合类侃山闲聊图库书市文摘伊甸窗
游客:  注册 | 登录 | 首页
作者:
标题: 许渊冲如何抄袭中诗英译的名家弗莱彻,韦利和方重? 上一主题 | 下一主题


#1  许渊冲如何抄袭中诗英译的名家弗莱彻,韦利和方重?

下面是微信转来的,排版比较乱。但仍觉得应该给大家看看。

许渊冲如何抄袭中诗英译的名家弗莱彻,韦利和方重?
2017-07-15 stan 阅读 644

少政导语
许渊冲的英文水平,从他出版的《中诗英韵探胜》》《毛泽东诗词选前言》自传《Vanished Springs逝水流年》几本书中,可以看出其实极为蹩脚。自1984年美国教师LOUIE CREW开始,到1997年休斯顿老师和上海交大毛荣贵合作点评中国大学生英文作文,到国内二语英文写作研究最新成就都可以证明许的英文水准符合中介语的标准特征:

1, 词法复杂性不达标,习用高频词(休斯顿老师称之为低语域词汇),尤其不擅动词(近百分之四十的动词就是to be to have,其他动词非常简单,而且反复重复使用)。许的英文一个重要特点就是文字的浅白,中学生不用字典可以看懂。
2, 句法复杂性不达标。休斯顿老师认为中国学生基本上不习惯使用复合结构,且复合结构中的名词分句是难点。许的句式百分之九十是简单句并列句,偶有复合结构,也是中国学生都会使用的副词分句。
3, 二语作文研究强调的实词,词汇创造性,词频分布,许的写作中很难见到。休斯顿老师对这类写作说的很难听:
You sound ignorant passibly unworthy of being taken seriously.
别人一听就知道你什么都不懂,也没有任何人把你当回事。

许自称中诗英译他是第一人,独步天下。然而在笔者心中,一直有个谜:许的英文如此浅陋,如何攀上英美名家荟萃的中诗英译顶端?换言之,如此低劣不入流的英文,如何就撑得起中诗英译的七宝楼台?
因为一个基本常识是:要译好中诗,起码你要英文写作功力雄厚,而且在古典诗词方面有很深的写作成就,同时也还写过很多英诗。如此,你对两种诗歌传统才能心领神会,保持极大的敏感,能充分调动英诗的各种形式,韵律等资源。而许从来就没有以古诗词写作见长,也从未发表过任何英诗!而且最起码的是,他的英文根本不上档次,按中介语的定义,这是一种既非英语,也非汉语的非驴非马的中间产品!

许却偏偏要逆天而行。他像一个从未描过红,练过正楷,行书,就劈头盖脑提出一个所谓三美(形美意美音美)原则,直接从狂草入手,说已经超越了赵孟頫,王右军,柳公权,而且把中国一千所外语院校的英文教授全部骗到,以致骗到中国电视台,骗到国际译联给他颁发最高的"北极星"奖项!
许之所以欺世盗名如此之久,是因为国内英语学界学风极为空疏,所谓的大家都是欺世盗名的课题高手,科研达人,专注用法,语法的人不受重视,没有课题,大家趋之若鹜的都是讨巧的所谓典籍英译,传播中国文化,讲好中国故事。最为荒唐的事,许的所谓三美理论,抄袭的中诗英译,居然衍生了海量的所谓课题,硕士论文。一个如此低劣的骗子居然捧成了大师,国师,走红央视,刷频中国。学风如此,就没有什么人能从语法角度看待许的拙劣英文,进入文本,对勘找出许抄袭名家的斑斑劣迹和证据。
当然,英美名家曾在19世纪末上世纪初掀起过一个中诗英译的高潮,产生了一大批弗莱彻,韦利式的名家。只是斗换星移,英美对中诗古典部分兴趣转移了。最大的问题,这些名家的译作距今一个世纪了,国内从未出版过,或很少出版过他们的译作。这给了许这样的骗子以可乘之机,使得他可以把海外杰出的译作,做些手脚,掩人耳目,就拿来充作自己的译作!不过,此人一开始利用这种信息差,还没有搞到这种大张旗鼓的程度。只是进入21世纪,中国GDP剧增,国力大盛,主流开始大规模推动传播传统文化,许一下子变成了香饽饽,原来还有几分胆怯怕人抓住把柄,现在嗨起来把一切忘到了九天云外,豪情满怀,名片上赫然印着"书销中外六十本,诗译英法唯一人"。自诩"不是院士胜院士,遗欧赠美千首诗",翻译超过了傅雷,这就引发了笔者的兴趣。对这个现象级的人物做一点文本意义语法意义的批判,或许对国内流行的诸多学术泡沫不无冷却功效。

最近,笔者细读许的英文史学著作《中诗英韵探胜》(1997年版),一比对几位名家弗莱彻,罗兰,韦利,恍然大悟,许公然大段大段抄袭名家,有些地方改头换面一下,主动句改成被动句,地点状语置前改置后,特别是在1992年版,许多地方基本上懒得动一个半个标点符号,就全部占为己有,并宣布自己已经独步天下,超越了弗莱彻,韦利,真是不知天下还有羞耻二字!许常常瞧不起其他几位中诗英译者,如徐忠杰,吴钧陶,乃至杨宪益等。现在我才明白,这几位固然笨词拙句,聊甚于无,但他们有一个共同点:确实是一字一句造出来的。这当然不是文章正轨。也不是译诗之道,如19世纪菲兹杰拉德译鲁拜集,但他们毕竟没有抄袭名家!笔者费心, 列出几个例子,看许如何东拉西扯,抄袭名家,供同好们评议。

值得注意的是,许后来自己也觉得这样干风险太高,对许多前期抄袭太明火执仗的译文做了些小修小改,公布于众。但我们不要上当,请大家关注1992年第一版,1997年再版提供的译文。
我本人相信许译中诗可能是1949年以来中国翻译界,中国英语学界最大的闹剧。
笔者正在撰写的长文题目就是:
许渊冲如此低劣不入流的英文,如何就撑得起中诗英译的七宝楼台?

本文选自许渊冲《中诗英韵探胜》北大出版社 1992年第一版 97年再版
      登高 杜甫  英文译本至少十家 英国外交家弗莱彻首译(1918年)
                风急天高猿啸哀,渚清沙白鸟飞回。
             无边落木萧萧下,不尽长江滚滚来。
            万里悲秋常作客,百年老病独登台。
            艰难苦恨繁霜鬓,潦倒新停浊酒杯。
           
The Heights                 W. J. B. Fletcher 译  1918年
The wind so fresh, the sky so high / Awake the gibbons’ wailing cry.
/ The isles clear-cut, the sand so white, / Arrest the wheeling sea-gulls’ flight.
/ Through endless space with rustling sound / The falling leaves are whirled around.
/ Beyond my ken a yeasty sea / The Yangtze’s waves are rolling free. / From far away, in autumn drear, / I find myself a stranger here. /
With dragging years and illness wage / Lone war upon this lofty stage. / With troubles vexed and trials sore / My locks are daily growing hoar: / Till Time, before whose steps I pine, / Set down this failing cup of wine!
                                             
        On the Heights  ( II )               许渊冲译
The wind so swift and sky so wide, apes wail and cry; /
Water so clear and beach so white, birds wheel and fly. /
The boundless forest sheds its leaves shower by shower; /
The endless river rolls its waves hour after hour. /
A thousand miles from home in autumn, I’m grieved at autumn’s plight; /
Ill now and then for years, ,alone I’m on this height. /
Living in times so hard, at frosted hair I pine; /
Cast down by poverty, I have to give up wine.
                           
       The Heights         W. J. B. Fletcher 译对勘许渊冲
弗莱彻The wind so fresh, the sky so high / Awake the gibbons’ wailing cry.
/ The isles clear-cut, the sand so white, / Arrest the wheeling sea-gulls’ flight.
许渊冲 The wind so swift and sky so wide, apes wail and cry; /
Water so clear and beach so white, birds wheel and fly. /

弗莱彻/ Through endless space with rustling sound / The falling leaves are whirled around.
/ Beyond my ken a yeasty sea / The Yangtze’s waves are rolling free. / 许渊冲 The boundless forest sheds its leaves shower by shower; /
The endless river rolls its waves hour after hour. /

弗莱彻From far away, in autumn drear, / I find myself a stranger here. /
With dragging years and illness wage / Lone war upon this lofty stage. / 许渊冲 A thousand miles from home in autumn, I’m grieved at autumn’s plight; /
Ill now and then for years, ,alone I’m on this height. /

弗莱彻With troubles vexed and trials sore / My locks are daily growing hoar: / Till Time, before whose steps I pine, / Set down this failing cup of wine!
许渊冲 Living in times so hard, at frosted hair I pine; /
Cast down by poverty, I have to give up wine.              许渊冲译 1984年

                   许渊冲后来出了修改版 企图掩饰第一版公然抄袭行为
  On the Heights  (2 )             许渊冲译
The wind so swift, the sky so steep, sad gibbons cry; /
Water so clear and sand so white, backward birds fly. /
The boundless forest sheds its leaves shower by shower; /  
The endless river rolls its waves hour after hour. /
Far from home in autumn, I’m grieved to see my plight; /
After my long illness, I climb alone this height. /
Living in hard times, at my frosted hair I pine; /
Pressed by poverty, I give up my cup of wine.

归园田居五首(其三)                 陶潜
种豆南山下,草盛豆苗稀。晨兴理荒秽,带月荷锄归。
道狭草木长,夕露沾我衣。衣沾不足惜,但使愿无违。

Back to The Gardens and Fields  美国人Roland C Fang1980年译归田园居
Beneath the southern hills I sow my bees.
Their shoots are lost among the rank grass.
I rise early to clear away the weeds.
Till, hoe on shoulder, I plod home with the moon.
The paths are narrow, the green growths tall.
And the evening dews moisten my clothes.
What matters if I am wet with dew.
So long as I enjoy my heart’s content.

许渊冲1988年译归田园居Return to Nature (III)        
I sow my beans 'neath southern hill;  
Bean shoots are lost among the rank grass green.
Early I rise to clear the weeds away;  
I plod home ,hoe on shoulder, with the moon ray.
The paths are narrow, tall are the growths new,  
My clothes are moistened  by the evening dew,
What does it matter even if I am wet,  
So long as my heart’s desires can be met.


美国人Roland C Fang1980年译归田园居对勘许渊冲
罗兰Beneath the southern hills I sow my bees.
Their shoots are lost among the rank grass.
许渊冲I sow my beans 'neath southern hill;
Bean shoots are lost among the rank grass green.


罗兰I rise early to clear away the weeds.
Till, hoe on shoulder, I plod home with the moon.
许渊冲Early I rise to clear the weeds away;  
I plod home ,hoe on shoulder, with the moon ray.


罗兰The paths are narrow, the green growths tall.
And the evening dews moisten my clothes.
许渊冲The paths are narrow, tall are the growths new,  
My clothes are moistened  by the evening dew,


罗兰What matters if I am wet with dew.
So long as I enjoy my heart’s content.
许渊冲What does it matter even if I am wet,  
So long as my heart’s desires can be met.


许渊冲归田园居后来出了一个修改本 掩饰第一版公然抄袭行为
I sow my beans 'neath southern hill;
Bean shoots are lost where weeds o'ergrow.
I weed at dawn through early still;  
I plod home with my moonlit hoe.
The path is narrow, grasses tall,  
With evening dew my clothes wet,
To which I pay no heed at all,  
If my desire can but be met.

饮酒(其五) 陶渊明
结庐在人境,而无车马喧。 问君何能尔?心远地自偏。 采菊东篱下,悠然见南山。山气日夕佳,飞鸟相与还。 此中有真意,欲辨已忘言。
Roland C Fang 1980年译饮酒
Among the busy haunts of men I build my hut;
But hear no noise of wheels or trampling hoofs.
You would stop to ask me how-
The distant heart creates a distant retreat.
Picking chrysanthemums under the eastern fence;
Leisurely I look up and see the southern Mountains.
The mountain air's good both day and night;
And the birds are flying homewards together..
In such things I find the truth of life;
I would tell how, but have forgotten the words.
Drinking wine(许渊冲)1988年译饮酒
Among the haunts of men I build my cot;
There’s noise of wheel and hoof, but I hear not.
How can it leave on my mind no trace?
Secluded heart creates secluded place.
i pick fence-side chrysanthemums at will;
And leisurely I see the southern hill.
Where mountain air's fresh both day and night;
And where I find home-going birds in flight.
What is the revelation at this view?
Words fail me even if I try to tell you.

罗兰译饮酒和许渊冲对勘
罗兰Among the busy haunts of men I build my hut;
But hear no noise of wheels or trampling hoofs.
许渊冲Among the haunts of men I build my cot;
There’s noise of wheel and hoof, but I hear not.


罗兰You would stop to ask me how-
The distant heart creates a distant retreat.
许渊冲How can it leave on my mind no trace?
Secluded heart creates secluded place.


罗兰Picking chrysanthemums under the eastern fence;
Leisurely I look up and see the southern Mountains.
许渊冲I pick fence-side chrysanthemums at will;
And leisurely I see the southern hill.


罗兰The mountain air's good both day and night;
And the birds are flying homewards together..
许渊冲Where mountain air's fresh both day and night;
And where I find home-going birds in flight.


罗兰In such things I find the truth of life;
I would tell how, but have forgotten the words.
许渊冲What is the revelation at this view?
Words fail me even if I try to tell you.


许渊冲归田园居后来出了一个修改本 掩饰第一版公然抄袭行为
In people's haunt I build my cot;
Of wheel's and hoof's noise i hear not.
How can it leave on me no trace?
Secluded heart makes secluded place.
i pick fenceside asters at will;
Carefree i see the southern hill.
The mountain air's fresh day and night;
Together birds go home in flight.
What revelation at this view?
Words fail if i try to tell you.


        Drinking(杨宪益,戴乃迭)

Within the world of men I make my home,
Yet din of house and carriage there is none;
You ask me how this quiet is achieved-
With thoughts remote the place appears alone.
While picking asters'neath the Eastern fence
My gaze upon the Southern mountain rests;
The mountain views are good by day or night,
The birds come flying homeward to their nests.
A truth in this reflection lies concealed,
But I forget how it may be revealed.
陶渊明《责子》诗的英译
白发被两鬓,肌肤不复实。虽有五男儿,总不好纸笔。
阿舒已二八,懒惰故无匹。阿宣行志学,而不好文术。
雍端年十三,不识六与七。通子垂九龄,但觅梨与栗。
天运苟如此,且进杯中物。

Arthur Waley英国名家威利1918年译文
White hair covers my temples,/I am wrinkled…
And though I have five sons,/They all hate paper and brush.
A-shu is eighteen:/For laziness there is none like him.
A-hsuan does his best,/But really loathes the Fine Arts/ Yung-tuan is thirteen,/But does not know "six" from "seven".
T’ung-tzu in his ninth year/Is only concerned with things to eat.
If Heaven treats me like this,/What can I do but fill my cup?(Arthur Waley译)

许渊冲1988年译责子
My temples now are covered with white hairs,/My skin is wrinkled, my muscles are slack. /Although I have five sons, none of them cares/To learn to read and write in white or black./ My eldest son already is twice eight,/For laziness none can be his compeers./ My second son will never dedicate/Himself to fine arts, though at fifteen years./ My third son is thirteen, so is my fourth one,/But they don’t know how much makes six plus seven.
/Nearly nine years old is my youngest son, /Amid the pears and nuts he is in heaven./ Alas! If such be the decree divine,/What can I do but drain my cup of wine!(

Arthur Waley英国名家韦利1918年译文与许渊冲对勘
韦利White hair covers my temples,/I am wrinkled…
And though I have five sons,/They all hate paper and brush.
许渊冲My temples now are covered with white hairs,/My skin is wrinkled, my muscles are slack. /Although I have five sons, none of them cares/To learn to read and write in white or black./
韦利A-shu is eighteen:/For laziness there is none like him.
A-hsuan does his best,/But really loathes the Fine Arts/ 许渊冲My eldest son already is twice eight,/For laziness none can be his compeers./ My second son will never dedicate/Himself to fine arts, though at fifteen years./
韦利Yung-tuan is thirteen,/But does not know "six" from "seven".
T’ung-tzu in his ninth year/Is only concerned with things to eat.
许渊冲My third son is thirteen, so is my fourth one,/But they don’t know how much makes six plus seven.
/Nearly nine years old is my youngest son, /Amid the pears and nuts he is in heaven./

韦利If Heaven treats me like this,/What can I do but fill my cup?
许渊冲Alas! If such be the decree divine,/What can I do but drain my cup of wine!

逢雪宿芙蓉山主人:刘长卿
日暮苍山远,天寒白屋贫。柴门闻犬吠,风雪夜归人。
Fletcher 1918译
The daylight far is dawning across the purple hill,
And white the houses of the poor with winter’s breathing chill.
The house dog’s sudden barking, which hears the wicket go,
Greets us at night returning through driving gale and snow.
Dell R.Hale 1975
Dark hills distant In the setting sun.
Thatched hut stark under wintery skies.
A dog barks at the brushwood gate.
As someone heads home this windy, snowy night.

许渊冲1988年译刘长卿
At sunset hillside village still seems far;
Cold and deserted the thatched cottages are.
At wicket gate a dog is heard to bark.
With wind and snow I come when night is dark.

长恨歌中英文对照白居易原文长恨歌
1920年英国人Herbert A Giles译散文体1973 Ines Herdan译诗体

W.J.B Fletcher 1918年首译长恨歌
The Lord of Han loved beauty;  In love’s desire he pined.
For years within his palace Such love he could not find.
A maiden of the Yang  To wedlock’s age had grown.
Brought up within the harem, And to the world unknown.
许渊冲译 1987年译    汉皇重色思倾国,御宇多年求不得。
杨家有女初长成,养在深闺人未识。
The beauty-loving monarch longed year after year
To find a beautiful lady without peer.
A maiden of the Yangs* to womanhood just grown,
In inner chambers bred, to the world was unknown.
: W.J.B.弗莱彻是全世界范围内最早出版唐诗英译专门著作的译者,其译本选译了286首唐诗,首次较为全面地将唐诗这一代表中国古典文学最高峰的文化瑰宝展现在英美读者面前,并在随后近百年内产生了持续的影响。国内外研究界对弗莱彻的译本并不陌生,但长期以来更多是从翻译技巧层面出发,将其译本与后世更为成熟的译本相比对,对其错讹或不成熟之处大加挞伐,未能正确认识和评价其首创之功。本文将在细读弗氏译本全文的基础上,返回弗莱彻所处的历史文化语境,指出弗氏对唐诗的大力推介,并分析其较为优秀的翻译技艺,及其在译介中归化和异化两种策略的结合,从而重新评价其贡献。W.J.B.弗莱彻是全世界范围内最早出版唐诗英译专门著作的译者, 在从事唐诗英译的西方译者中,活跃于20世纪初的英国外交官弗莱彻(William JohnBainbrigge Fletcher,1879—1933)是较为重要的一位。近年有学者指出,弗莱彻两本英汉对照的译著《英译唐诗选》(Gems of Chinese Verse)和《英译唐诗选续集》(More Gems of Chinese Poetry
阅读 644  1 举报
   


stan
最新评论
快来写第一条评论
一键制作你自己的美篇

推荐文章
【遇见Bali】南纬8°的热带风情
1626
为什么爱摄影的女人都是极品?
44056

女孩:你出门要记得带书
3338
行摄新疆(老街上的美食)原创
24531


2017-7-17 00:10
博客  资料  信箱  短信   编辑  引用

fanghuzhai

#2  

本来想用Word 文档搞一个对比版, 用黄色标出作者认为是抄袭的地方,一看,太乱。太费功夫,应该退回原作者重新写,搞一个表格出来。


有的地方我不同意,“杨家有女”, 都翻译成 a maiden of the Yang family, 这算是抄袭吗?前人
用了maiden, 我就非要用 girlie 不成?

不过这首确实是太相似了:

归园田居五首(其三)                 陶潜
种豆南山下,草盛豆苗稀。晨兴理荒秽,带月荷锄归。
道狭草木长,夕露沾我衣。衣沾不足惜,但使愿无违。

Back to The Gardens and Fields  美国人Roland C Fang1980年译归田园居
Beneath the southern hills I sow my bees.
Their shoots are lost among the rank grass.
I rise early to clear away the weeds.
Till, hoe on shoulder, I plod home with the moon.
The paths are narrow, the green growths tall.
And the evening dews moisten my clothes.
What matters if I am wet with dew.
So long as I enjoy my heart’s content.

许渊冲1988年译归田园居Return to Nature (III)        
I sow my beans 'neath southern hill;  
Bean shoots are lost among the rank grass green.
Early I rise to clear the weeds away;  
I plod home ,hoe on shoulder, with the moon ray.
The paths are narrow, tall are the growths new,  
My clothes are moistened  by the evening dew,
What does it matter even if I am wet,  
So long as my heart’s desires can be met.


换了我,我也没有那么多词汇,就这样翻了:

种豆南山下,草盛豆苗稀。晨兴理荒秽,带月荷锄归。
道狭草木长,夕露沾我衣。衣沾不足惜,但使愿无违。

At the foot of the southern hill I grow beans
Too much weeds are choking the shoots too few
In the morning I clear the fields of the weeds
And come back under the moon shouldering the hoe
Grass and shrubs flank the long narrow path
My garment was touched by the evening dew
Whether it is wet with the dew I don't make a fuss
I only wish my labor could bring a harvest view


哈哈,打趣打趣
==============

我翻译诗, 就干脆不看别人翻的。 等翻译出来后,如果有兴致, 再跟别人的比较一下。

==================

至于说虚渊冲的英文达到什么程度。 虽好是按照美国ACTFL 的考试考一下。 仅凭他的翻译和几篇文章不算数。此外,词汇也好,句法也好,在我们的脑子里分为积极和消极两种。积极的就是用于产出的部分, 消极的用于接收的部分。 比如我想我的英文阅读能力达到3应该不成问题, 我甚至能看懂一点中古英语的句子,但是我说出来的都是日常口语。 如果没有事先写好讲稿,练习几次,我绝对不能口若悬河说出一堆Level  3的英文来。


2017-7-18 10:00
博客  资料  短信   编辑  引用



#3  

从没研究过许先生是否抄袭过别人的东西,也觉得作者用许简单的遣词造句来佐证他英语水平低不够说服力(海明威的遣词与造句就非常简单,但他的iceberg style并不那么好懂)。但许把《雪》之类的诗译得像打油诗是不争的事实。


2017-7-19 20:54
博客  资料  信箱  短信   编辑  引用

小草

#4  

和老方同乐一番...^_^


归园田居五首(其三)- 陶潜

种豆南山下,草盛豆苗稀。晨兴理荒秽,带月荷锄归。
道狭草木长,夕露沾我衣。衣沾不足惜,但使愿无违。

A Verse by Tao Qian
(Return to Rural Life)

At the base of Mount Lu the peas I sow;
Alas, the weeds outnumber their shoots, though.
Afore sunrise I weed where my peas grow,
Till moonrise I trudge home, bearing my hoe.
The bush and shrub invade the paths narrow;
The eve dews wet what I wear as I go.
My drenched clothes do not bring me any woe,
As long as I relish what I wish so.

Tr. Xiao Cao


Roland C Fang - 方重,他是美国人?他的译文第一行里的 bees 是什么意思?


2017-7-20 20:33
博客  资料  信箱  短信   编辑  引用

小草

#5  

少政 - 黄少征, 上海外语学院毕业,青海师范大学外国语言文学系副教授,hmm, 他的这篇大作可是夹带着不少个人情感哈,呵呵呵,也带有某些人身攻击之嫌那,呵呵呵


2017-7-20 20:40
博客  资料  信箱  短信   编辑  引用

小草

#6  

批评别人的人最好自己也能拿出他自己认为高人一等的译文版本。。。呵呵呵


2017-7-20 20:41
博客  资料  信箱  短信   编辑  引用

小草

#7  

to be or not to be -----简单得再也不能简单了,呵呵呵,老莎英文“太臭”, 绝对“不过关”。。。


2017-7-20 20:44
博客  资料  信箱  短信   编辑  引用

小草

#8  

《南方人物周刊》访谈许渊冲


人物周刊:你对黄少政有印象吗?
许渊冲:我见过他一次,他是辜正坤带来的。但只谈了一个小时,谈的内容也不大记得。我对他(黄)只了解这个文章。他学历我也不了解,只知道他是青海师范大学的副教授,怎么能说出这种话来?这对我简直是骂嘛!
第一个例子就是我抄方重的。他的英文名字是Roland C. Feng,黄少政的说法是“美国人罗兰”,表示他本来根本就不了解方重是什么人。方重是我老师辈,在上海外国语学院教书,1980年出版了陶渊明诗集。因为我翻译诗比较多了,他请我评论,我就写了一篇评论。我认为他翻得不错,但根据“三美”的原则,我跟方重说,翻得好,要是加上音美、形美原则就更好了。
人物周刊:这篇文章你现在还保留在家里?
许渊冲:对,我后来登在《翻译的艺术》里。(到书架找出该书,翻出)“《谈方重的翻译》,”你看,“总而言之,方重的陶渊明诗翻得很好,令人赞赏。但是,如果能再锦上添花,加上译文的音美和形美,那就可以和翻译史上的《鲁拜集》比美了。”
人物周刊:方重怎么评论?
许渊冲:方重同意。他问我,怎么改更好?我就给他改,就是他(黄少政)举的例子。我改得很好,方重还在上海政协食堂请我吃饭。怎么会是抄袭?你不了解情况怎么能乱说呢?还好文章留下来了,这事上海外国语学院1980年《外国语》第六期有报道。
方重翻的“种豆南山下,草盛豆苗稀”:Beneath the southern hills I sow my beans,他最后用的复数。Their shoots are lost among the rank grass没有韵。我建议改成这样:Beneath the southern hills I sow my bean,我把s取消了,押韵。下句Bean shoots are lost among the rank grass green我加了green,和bean押韵了。这是抄袭吗?是他自己要我提意见。我还改得更好啦,不但有意美还有音美啦。所以他自己都说,“一字之师”。这个例子就可以证明了。
人物周刊:他还提到英国的弗莱彻(W.J.B.弗莱彻,唐诗英译译者)。
许渊冲:黄少政说的第二首更妙,《登高》。这是我的名译啊!(拿出书架上的《中诗英韵探胜》)看《登高》,弗莱彻翻译的第一句是The wind so fresh, the sky so high,我的是The wind so swift and sky so wide。我“抄”了两个字,wind,sky,这算抄吗?
下一句“无边落木萧萧下,不尽长江滚滚来。”这两句我翻得很对的。弗莱彻的是Through endless space with rustling sound. The falling leaves are whirled around.Beyond my ken a yeasty sea.The Yangtze’s waves are rolling free.但没有“三美”啊。我怎么可能抄他的?有常识的一看就(知道),我比他不知道好(多少)。
余光中在香港一次谈话的时候说,这是不可译的。为什么呢?“无边”对“不尽”,“落”和“萧萧”都是“草”字头,下句“江”“滚滚”都是三点水偏旁。既有意美,又有音美形美,怎么转达?《明报》登了余的说法,杨振宁拿给我看,问我意见怎么样,我就把我翻的给杨振宁看,“三美”都翻出来了:The boundless forest sheds its leaves shower by shower. The endless river rolls its waves hour after hour. boundless对endless,shed和shower都是sh-,river和roll都是r-。“萧萧”翻译成shower by shower,这不是我的,是我老师卞之琳翻的。也是我问他,这翻得很好啊,应该对下联啊!他说,没有办法,你试试看。我就翻了hour after hour,shower和hour还押韵,就是好。内容上看,也不是乱加的,“不尽长江”有时间和空间的不尽,空间的不尽是endless,时间也是不尽的,就是后面的hour after hour。杨振宁把我翻译的寄给《明报》,他们登了,原稿我没有,但可以查到。企鹅出版社出了我的翻译,就用这个。
这两个例子够了吧?为黄少政这个牺牲我的翻译时间,不值得。
人物周刊:你怎么评价韦利的翻译?
许渊冲:我写过一篇《诗词英译可以走向世界》(《英语世界》,2015),说我胜过韦利。“学而时习之,不亦说乎?”“学”韦利翻成learn,“习”翻成repeat,“说”翻译成pleasure。“学习了又复习,是很快乐的事。”对学生说可以,但孔子这话是对君子说的,就不行了。所以我把“学”翻成acknowledge,是指“得到学问”。得到知识而且把知识付之实践,put into practice。“说”我翻成delight,是说精神上的愉悦。“学”是真,“习”是善,“说”是美,孔子一句话里包括三个层次,韦利翻译里一点都没有。这个例子说明我比韦利强多少啊。怎么能说我抄韦利?我远高于他了。我说英美人英文再好,对中文理解只有50分,我的中文理解能力有八九十分,英文表达能力也八九十分就够了。所以这个问题是两条路线斗争,到底是洋为中用还是崇洋媚外?我是洋为中用。
还有《关雎》。“关关雎鸠”他翻译成Fair, fair, cry the ospreys。对“鸠”的解释有三种,水鸟、白鹭、斑鸠。哪种对?要看本领了。韦利翻译成“水鸟”,水鸟哪有fair fair(“美啊,美啊”)叫的?所以翻得不好。斑鸠叫声是“咕咕”,“咕咕雎鸠”,声音不响亮,加个-an就变成“关”,响亮得多。中国两千五百年前就知道用元音显示这个。我翻译的是By riverside are cooing. A pair of turtledoves. 这个译文企鹅出版社出版了,美国人是懂的。我拿大奖是无愧于心的。我在英美都出版了,评价都很高啊,看到的人不一定多,外国对中国这些感兴趣的人有几个啊?
人物周刊:你了解出版作品在海外的影响力吗?
许渊冲:学生跟我反映过,知道的不多。(影响力)只能是华文界了,在美国你能希望怎么样啊?我们的书在美国想很怎么样是很难,但是在华人中间是可以(传播)的。对中国没兴趣怎么会看我们的东西?没办法,这只能慢慢来,等国家强盛——现在好多了,我们的留学生多了。就我刚才举的例子,根据他们(弗莱彻、韦利)翻的第一句话,谁看?我的翻译,道理多深啊。
人物周刊:这就说到了大奖问题,2014年国际译联把“北极光”奖颁给你。
许渊冲:他说我英文不行。我英文怎么不行?一百六十多本书怎么出来的?他说我“把中国一千所外语院校的英文教授全部骗到,以致骗到中国电视台,骗到国际译联给他颁发最高的‘北极光’奖项!”一个人有这样大的本事啊?还有这些人都是饭桶啊,看不出来?他怎么有资格说这个话?
我就说一个,《诗经》里的千古丽句,国际译联给我文学翻译奖的根据之一,“昔我往矣,杨柳依依。今我来思,雨雪霏霏。行道迟迟,载渴载饥。我心伤悲,莫知我哀。”这八句表达了中国古代人民热爱和平,反对打仗。我翻译的是:
When I left here;
Willows shed tear.
I come back now;
Snow bends the bough.
Long,long the way;
Hard,hard the day.
Hunger and thirst;
Press me the worst.
My grief o’er flows.
Who knows? Who knows?
第一句“杨柳流泪”,只有我一个人这么翻的。杨宪益翻的fresh and green,什么意思?到最后一句“我的悲哀像水一样流满了一条江河,谁知道我的悲哀呢?”我都只用四个字啊!又要把内容传达,又押韵,谈何容易啊?你说还有比我更能拿世界大奖的吗?
他有些话都说得不成话的,很那个的,简直是骂嘛!我说自己“不是院士胜院士”,他不赞同。我为什么这么说呢?那时候中国工程院院院长是朱光亚,要每个院士都放一本我翻译的唐诗,作为他们对外交流使用。我不能说“胜院士”吗?这书是院长要每个院士读的。
还有“三美”,这是鲁迅提出来的,还得到毛泽东同意的。“三美”不是我个人的观点,是中国的,你反对这个,不是反对我。所以我说中国文化如何走向世界,是“要用‘三美’这个办法走向世界”。


2017-9-20 21:40
博客  资料  信箱  短信   编辑  引用

« 上一主题 伊甸窗 下一主题 »

首页小说界诗苑散文天地纪实录文史哲艺术之声综合类侃山闲聊图库书市文摘伊甸窗